We report on a kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of a 45-by-54 km area in the eastern salar, conducted in September 2002 to provide ground truth for the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission.
African sex video free adult xxx java chat - Dating of paleolakes in the central altiplano of bolivia
Radar altimeters such as Envisat and TOPEX/Poseidon (e.g.
Fu 1994) and the laser altimeter aboard NASA's Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (Schutz 2005) can measure the elevation of flat surfaces to within 5 cm rms, which is two orders of magnitude better than the 6.2 m (90 per cent confidence level) accuracy of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) over South America (Rodriguez 2005).
The motivation for this paper was a kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of the salar de Uyuni carried out in September 2002 to provide ground truth for the ICESat laser altimeter (see Fricker 2005).
Longer wavelengths in the DEM correlate well with mapped gravity, suggesting a connection between broad-scale salar topography and the geoid similar to that seen over the oceans.
expanse of halite at 4 km above sea level in the Andean Altiplano.
The salar is the lowest point of an internal drainage basin that has undergone many cycles of inundation and evaporation throughout the late Quaternary (Argollo & Mourguiart 2000; Fornari 2000).
Interlayered salt and mud deposits reaching depths of hundreds of metres in the centre of the salar (Baker 2001; Fritz 2004) are relics of a long history of sedimentation during lacustrine phases followed by the deposition of halite in the lower reaches of the basin when the lakes retreated and evaporated (Risacher & Fritz 2000).
Although the current dry period has persisted for at least 8000 yr (Sylvestre 1999), hydrological activity continues in the form of periodic flooding which regenerates the surface via the dissolution and redeposition of salt (Lowenstein & Hardie 1985) and appears to be responsible for maintaining the salar's extraordinary smoothness.
As an extremely broad and flat terrestrial surface, the salar de Uyuni is an ideal reference target for Earth-orbiting altimeters.